Central nervous system diseases

  • Jul 26, 2021
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Central nervous system diseases

The nervous system is extremely important since it is responsible for many organs of our body to function optimally. This system is made up of two different systems, one is the peripheral nervous system and the other is the Central Nervous System. In the peripheral nervous system are the nerves that are located outside the spinal cord and the brain, while the central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord spinal.

When there is any pathology in the central nervous system, the problems that this can cause us They are serious and central nervous system diseases can occur in people of any age. In this Psychology-Online article: central nervous system diseases, we are going to let you know which are the main pathologies of this system.

You may also like: Central Nervous System: Functions and parts


  1. Central nervous system diseases: main pathologies
  2. Epilepsy
  3. Meningitis
  4. Encephalitis
  5. Tourette: a curious disorder of the central nervous system
  6. Alzheimer's
  7. Multiple sclerosis: a serious disease of the nervous system
  8. Other central nervous system disorders

Central nervous system diseases: main pathologies.

The brain is the organ that is responsible for carrying out the higher functions of our body, such as memory and other cognitive functions. The spinal cord and nerves derived from the brain are responsible for controlling movements.

Some main diseases of the central nervous system are as follows:

  • Epilepsy
  • Brain tumors
  • Meningitis
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Encephalitis
  • Dementias
  • Tourette
  • Alzheimer's

Next, we are going to define these pathologies so that you can clear all your doubts about their symptoms and treatment.

Central nervous system diseases - Central nervous system diseases: main pathologies

1. Epilepsy.

Epilepsy is a brain disorder It is characterized because the person who suffers from it has a long-lasting predisposition to generate epileptic seizures because their neurons do not work correctly. Is central nervous system disease is chronic and the person suffering from it comes to manifest epileptic seizures unexpectedly and spontaneously, therefore that it is not only a physical problem, but the consequences can also be cognitive, psychological and social.

It is important to take into account that in order for us to talk about epilepsy, the person must have had at least two seizures in an interval greater than 24 hours between a epileptic seizure and other, without an apparent cause and when it is proven that after having suffered an epileptic seizure, the person has a tendency to repeat. It is very important that the person is correctly examined and diagnosed since almost half of the people who suffer an epileptic attack, do not repeat it more and therefore it is not possible to speak of epilepsy.

If you want to know more about this disorder, we recommend reading the following article about types of epilepsy and their symptoms.

2. Meningitis.

When there is an infection in the brain and spinal cord, this can lead to highly severe inflammation. Among the main symptoms that appear when inflammation occurs are fever, headache, confusion and even, in the worst cases, the affected person can suffer serious brain damage so they may have seizures, that a cerebrovascular accident appears and can even lead to death.

When we talk about meningitis, we talk about a acute inflammatory response of the meninges that occurs due to a bacterial or viral infection due to some fungal infection, the reaction to any treatment, to some other inflammatory disease or some type of cancer, injuries in the spine or brain, etc.

Central nervous system diseases - 2. Meningitis

3. Encephalitis.

It is a brain inflammation, which is caused mainly by a virus, although it can also be caused by bacteria. This type of condition can be low or high severity, I feel mostly mild. When it comes to mild encephalitis, the symptoms that the affected person presents are similar to those of a flu and the Treatment would only consist of getting enough rest, drinking plenty of fluids and taking the medicine indicated by the doctor. However, in the worst cases, people can present some serious symptoms such as sudden fever, severe headaches, seizures, confusion, among others.

Encephalitis: treatment

Treatment for the most severe cases includes hospitalization of the person in order to have the disease well controlled and if it has affected some brain functions, it is recommended to carry out a rehabilitation with physiotherapists and speech therapists.

4. Tourette: a curious disorder of the central nervous system.

The Tourette syndrome It is a neurological condition of genetic origin that manifests itself in childhood or adolescence. The person suffering from this disease makes movements, tics or sounds abnormally and you have very poor control over these. The first symptoms to develop during this syndrome are those of the face, trunk, and arms.

It is also possible that the person repeats certain words and sometimes swears continuously. On the other hand, there are facial tics, which include blinking, grimacing, contractions of the nose, etc. which are carried out continuously and quickly. This syndrome can lead to other types of disorders such as the obsessive compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders, depression and attention hyperactivity disorder. So far it is unknown what is the cause of this condition, which is more common in males than in females.

Central nervous system diseases - 4. Tourette: a curious disorder of the central nervous system

5. Alzheimer's.

Alzheimer's is a type of dementia that occurs progressively and that it is destroying the memory and important cognitive functions such as intellectual and social skills. People with Alzheimer's present different symptoms that worsen as the disease progresses. Among the most common are trouble concentrating, confusion, trouble solving problems and in the most serious cases, the person may suffer major personality changes, have problems communicating orally written, disorientation in time and place, problems to carry out their daily tasks, forgetting their family and close people, among others more. Finally, in the later stages of the disease, people become totally dependent.

Causes of Alzheimer's

This pathology progressively kills brain cells and their connections. As for the causes that produce it, it has been found that it has been a consequence of different genetic and environmental factors and due to the lifestyle that the person has led.

Central nervous system diseases - 5. Alzheimer's

6. Multiple sclerosis - a serious disease of the nervous system.

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic illness that occurs due to the lack of a substance called myelin, which is responsible for enveloping and protecting the nerve fibers of our central nervous system. Myelin contains proteins and fats, which are necessary for there to be a correct conduction of electrical impulses between nerve fibers. Due to the lack of myelin, scars then occur in the affected areas of the central nervous system and these scars are called sclerosis. When myelin does not function properly or is destroyed, the myelin is abruptly interrupted. electrical impulses that go to the brain, which results in the appearance of a series of symptom.

Sclerosis multiple: symptoms

Among the main symptoms suffered by a person with multiple sclerosis are the following:

  • loss of muscle strength
  • vision problems or loss of vision in one eye
  • tingle
  • pain
  • trouble keeping balance

When the disease is at a more advanced level, other types of symptoms may appear, such as stiffness in the muscles, sexual problems, memory loss, of concentration and it is common for people with this disease to end up developing depression due to their condition. Keep in mind that symptoms vary from one person to another and due to the type of multiple sclerosis they present.

Central nervous system diseases - 6. Multiple sclerosis: a serious disease of the nervous system

Other central nervous system disorders.

In addition to the entire list of diseases of the nervous system, there are other less known pathologies but with some symptoms that must be detected to be treated in time.

  • Arachnoid cysts
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
  • Huntington's chorea
  • Brain tumors
  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Paralepsy or mental inertia

This article is merely informative, in Psychology-Online we do not have the power to make a diagnosis or recommend a treatment. We invite you to go to a psychologist to treat your particular case.

If you want to read more articles similar to Central nervous system diseases, we recommend that you enter our category of Neuropsychology.


  1. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2016, December 21). Meningitis and encephalitis. Retrieved September 28, 2018, from https://espanol.ninds.nih.gov/trastornos/meningitis_y_encefalitis.htm
  2. Andalusian Epilepsy Association. (2014, October 12). What is epilepsy. Retrieved September 28, 2018, from https://www.apiceepilepsia.org/que-es-la-epilepsia/que-es-la-epilepsia-definicion/
  3. Institute of Neuropathology of the Bellvitge University Hospital. (s.f.). Diseases of the central nervous system: the solution is found in the brain. Retrieved September 28, 2018, from http://www.bellvitgehospital.cat/info_corporativa/donorflyer.pdf
  4. Multiple sclerosis Spain. (s.f.). Multiple sclerosis: what is it. Retrieved September 28, 2018, from https://www.esclerosismultiple.com/esclerosis-multiple/que-es/
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