Do you know what is the function of the peripheral nervous system, what are the parts of the nervous system peripheral or why the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system must work coordinately?
The peripheral nervous system is made up of a large number of nerves and is in charge of functions as diverse as breathing, voluntary movements or responses in dangerous situations. In addition, without the existence of this system, the brain could not receive information, preventing decision-making that favors survival. If you want to know more about this system, keep reading our Psychology-Online article: Peripheral nervous system: functions and parts.
- Peripheral nervous system
- Peripheral nervous system: functions
- Peripheral nervous system: parts
- Peripheral nervous system: diseases
Peripheral nervous system.
The nervous system is the set of nerves and specialized cells, the neurons, which is responsible for controlling all the functions of the body, as well as relating and coordinating the actions of different organs and parts of the body.
Its activity is carried out through the emission and reception of electrical signals or nerve impulses. From the anatomical point of view, the nervous system is divided into the central and peripheral nervous system. The Central Nervous System It is made up of the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral nervous system: definition
The peripheral nervous system (SNP) is the part of the nervous system that is made up of the nerves and neurons that are found outside the brain and spinal cord. This neural network of the PNS connects the brain and spinal cord with the rest of the body, allowing the exchange of information.
The peripheral nervous system is divided into somatic and autonomic nervous system.
- The somatic peripheral nervous system: is responsible for sensory and motor information.
- The nervious system peripheral autonomous: is responsible for the control of involuntary bodily functions. The autonomic or vegetative peripheral nervous system, in turn, is divided into sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system.
Peripheral nervous system: functions.
What are the functions of the peripheral nervous system? Here we explain the main functions of the peripheral nervous system:
- The main function of the peripheral nervous system is to connection and relationship between the brain and spinal cord with the rest of the body: organs, limbs and skin.
- It enables the brain and spinal cord to send and receive information from the environment, which allows the reaction to external stimuli and the environment.
- This system allows muscle activation to perform both voluntary and involuntary movements.
- The peripheral nervous system plays a basic role in ensuring the maintenance of stable internal conditions. It depends on him control of respiration, digestion, salivation, etc. It allows you to perform these functions without the need to consciously think about them.
- The flight or fight responses they also depend on this system. Prepares and mobilizes the body to respond quickly to dangerous or threatening situations.
- Thanks to him information about the environment is transmitted to the brain, which is necessary to elicit responses. These reactions have the function of protecting the organism and are vital for survival.
- The nerves of the peripheral nervous system are not capable of making complex decisions, but without their transmission of information to the brain, the brain could not elaborate responses.
In the following article you can see other differences between central and peripheral nervous system.
Peripheral nervous system: parts.
What are the parts of the peripheral nervous system? The main parts of the peripheral nervous system They include the cranial nerves, the spinal nerves, and the nerve ganglia. How is the peripheral nervous system formed? The peripheral nervous system is made up of nerve ganglia and 43 pairs of nerves; 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 spinal pairs.
The cranial nerves are part of the peripheral nervous system. The 12 pairs of cranial nerves They are located in part of the head and neck. Its functions are sensitive, motor or mixed:
- Olfactory Nerve (I): takes care of the stimuli and olfactory information.
- Optic Nerve (II): sends visual stimuli to the brain.
- Oculomotor nerve (III): it intervenes in the muscular movements of the eye.
- Trochlear nerve (IV): controls one of the muscles in the eye that allows the eyeballs to move.
- Trigeminal Nerve (V): transmits sensory information about the face and mouth, as well as is responsible for chewing.
- Abductor Nerve (VI): it makes abduction possible, that is, the movement of the eye to the opposite side of the nose.
- Facial Nerve (VII): controls various muscles of the face, being able to create facial expressions, as well as being the recipient of gustatory information from the tongue.
- Vestibulocochlear Nerve (VIII): responsible for auditory impulses, balance and orientation.
- Glossopharyngeal Nerve (IX): This nerve is related to receiving signals from the tongue and pharynx and issuing commands to this area.
- Lazy Nerve (X): it conducts impulses from the pharynx and larynx to the brain, receives taste information from the epiglottis, and influences swallowing.
- Accessory Nerve (XI): activates the thoracic, abdominal and back muscles.
- Hypoglossal Nerve (XII): transmits information to the muscles of the throat and tongue.
Spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord and conduct stimuli from the rest of the body. These nerves have both a sensory and a motor part. The 31 pairs of spinal nerves are distributed as follows:
- Eight pairs of cervical nerves (C1 to C8) that exit the cervical spine.
- Twelve pairs of thoracic or dorsal nerves (T1 to T12) that emerge from the thoracic spine.
- Five pairs of lumbar nerves (L1 to L5) leaving the lumbar area.
- Five pairs of sacral nerves (S1 to S5) that arise from the sacral bone, located at the base of the spinal column.
- A pair of coccygeal nerves in the coccyx.
The ganglia are a group of neuronal bodies that are part of the peripheral nervous system. They are found interspersed in the course of the nerves and are divided into sensory or autonomic ganglia, in relation to the function they perform.
Peripheral nervous system: diseases.
The peripheral nervous system is not protected by bone structures, which makes it relatively vulnerable to a number of diseases. Conditions can be acquired or from birth. What are the most common diseases of the peripheral nervous system? The most common pathologies of this system are neuropathies, they refer to damage or disease of one or more nerves.
There are several types of this disease, due to the number of nerves that make up the PNS. Symptoms can develop quickly or slowly, taking years to develop. Symptoms usually occur on both sides of the body and begin with the fingers of the extremities. Neuropathy usually manifests as numbness, pain, burning, tingling, weakness, numbness, etc. Some of the most common types of neuropathies are:
- Carpal tunnel syndrome: pressure on the wrist nerve, causing numbness and loss of motion in the palm of the hand and fingers. This syndrome is associated with people who normally work with their hands by performing repetitive movements. Here you will find more information about Symptoms, Causes and Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.
- Ulnar nerve compression: injury to the ulnar nerve, which is located throughout the arm. The pain or numbness begins in the hands, and can reach the elbow.
- Peroneal nerve compression: this nerve is located in the lower leg. There is a loss of control and muscle mass in the ankles, feet and legs.
- Guillain Barre syndrome: Another disease of the peripheral nervous system is a disorder in which the immune system itself mistakenly attacks the nerves. The first manifestations are tingling and weakness in the extremities, spreading rapidly and producing paralysis in the body. With treatment, most people recover from this syndrome.
- Alcoholic neuropathy: It is due to nerve damage from alcohol intoxication, as well as poor nutrition, characteristic of alcoholism. Symptoms include pain and weakness in the extremities.
- Diabetic neuropathy: This disease of the peripheral nervous system develops because of the wear and tear on the nerves caused by high levels of sugar in the blood. Symptoms appear both on the extremities and on the face.
This article is merely informative, in Psychology-Online we do not have the power to make a diagnosis or recommend a treatment. We invite you to go to a psychologist to treat your particular case.
If you want to read more articles similar to Peripheral nervous system: functions and parts, we recommend that you enter our category of Neuropsychology.
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